Development Data Group, The World Bank. 2012. 2012 World Development Indicators Online. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Available at: http://data.worldbank.org/
Total external debt is the amount owed to nonresidents expressed in current U.S. dollars as a percentage of total GNI. Debt includes all public and private long- and short-term debt repayable in foreign currency, goods, or services.
GNIis calculated at as the total value of all goods and services produced by residents of a country including any product taxes and minus subsidies that are not included in the value of outputnet receipts of primary income (compensation of employees and property income) from abroad. Data is converted to current U.S. dollars using single year official exchange rates, though for a few countries where the official exchange rate is not reflective of the rate applied to actual foreign exchange transactions, an alternative conversion factor is used.